ARMCompany both neither produces chip to also do not sell chip, it sells chip technology accredit only. Accomplished however in hold the share that 90% above own on equipment market. Soft silver cost 300 much dollars to take next ARM 2016, make original bright red big violet ARM company, again change arrived of industry public figure before. ARM does not produce chip this to also can count money however in one’s hand jerky company is having what kind of phylogeny after all. 1978, CPUThe company is born in British Cambridge stealthily.
What this CPU points to is not the CPU chip inside computer, have same abecedarian company with it however, very may much person is not very familiar.
Central Processing Unit, central processor
The full name of CPU company: Cambridge Processor Unit, ” of unit of processor of Cambridge of literal means “ .
The author of CPU company: Hermann Hauser of doctor of Austrian book physics and his friend, british engineer Chris Curry.
Hermann Hauser and Chris Curry
Development should be such ↓
The person such as Hermann Hauser and Chris Curry founded Acorn computer company.
Acorn computer company rolled out BBC Micro computer, this is the first popular PC of European.
Acorn and partner rolled out ARM1 chip, regard its as the centre of prospective PC with this.
Malic company invests ARM, supply in order to make sure its Newton holds the chip of the computer, this highbrow equipment ends in failure.
The popular help that Nuojiyaji designs at ARM it became the mobile phone with the greatest whole world to produce business.
Do not cross ~
After CPU company holds water, basically be engaged in electronic equipment design and production professional work. The first order that they receive, it is the small controller system of production one-armed bandit. . .
After system of this small controller is come out by development, say for Acorn SysTeM 1.
Acorn System 1
1979, this company changed a name ——Acorn Computer Ltd to oneself.
What meaning is Acorn? Acorn.
There is an acorn inside the brand of company of Acorn Computer Ltd.
Right, it is glacial century inside, that squirrel is chasing after all the time that east.
About Acorn, still have an interesting view, because they want to be in phone yellow page,discharge namely in Apple (apple) before the company ……
After Acorn System 1, they developed System 2 in succession again, 3, 4, still have the ——Acorn Atom of box type computer that faces consumer.
Arrived 1981, the company greeted a BBC of god-given BBC of good luck —— to plan to broadcast a program that increases computer to popularize a level in whole England, they hope Acorn can produce to it the computer of form a complete set.
This plan is very grand, british government also is participated in among them (the in part that buys opportunity cost will be aided financially by the government) , once computer is purchased, each classroom that enters England.
After accepting this next jobs, acorn began to work to rise.
Result, very fast they discover, the hardware of own product is designed and can not satisfy requirement. At that time, the development tide of central processor, becoming 16 from 8. Acorn can be used without appropriate chip.
At first, they plan to use 16 chip of American country semiconductor and Motolora company. But, after the course is evaluated, they discovered two flaw:
The executive rate of chip is a bit slow, discontinuous ring is in season too long.
Price is too expensive, the computer of a 500 pound, processor chip seizes 100 pound.
They plan to search at that time of at the summit of one’s powerIntel(Intel) , hope the other side offers the design data of a few 80286 processor and sample. But, sufferred refuse however.
The Acorn company with stricken equipment, him decision works under stretch, oneself make chip. (hum, this bridge paragraph seem to be familiar with …… very much)
At that time, the personnel of research and development of Acorn company overcame interest component school to find a research —— about new-style processor to simplify from American California university uncle instruction collect, the design that can satisfy them fitly asks.
On this foundation, the course is old struggle difficultly, the computer scientist Sophie Wilson that comes from Cantabrigian university and Steve Furber completed the design of microprocessor finally.
Sophie Wilson and Steve Furber
Collect of former and responsible instruction is developed, latter is in charge of chip design.
To this chip, acorn names to it for AcornRISC Machine.
Hum, the “ARM” that this is famous 3 abecedarian origin.
Acorn is company name, machine is a machine, what meaning is that RISC?
The full name of RISC is " cuts instruction collect computer " (Reduced InstrucTiOn Set Computer) , the statement that it supports is simpler, power comsumption is small, so low-cost, suit mobile equipment particularly. The typical equipment of chip of inchoate use ARM, it is the Newtonian PDA of malic company.
Ahead gray font is high-energy early-warning
Blame technology accuses to be jumped over directly please
Here explains, after all “ simplifies instruction collect ” has what sense.
It is the phase is complex to “ instruction collect (CISC, complex Instruction Set Computer) a concept of ” .
Inchoate processor is CISC framework (the processor that includes Intel) , along with write time elapse, more and more instruction collect are joined. Because be compiled at that time implement the technology is not pure ripe, the program can be piled up with the machine directly or be to combine a language to be written into, to reduce the design time of the program, develop single statement gradually, the program code of complex operation. Stylist needs to write down simple instruction only, give again CPU goes carrying out.
But somebody discovers later, whole instruction is centered, the instruction that makes an appointment with 20 ％ only often can be used, occupied the 80 ％ of whole process about; Odd the instruction of 80 ％ , occupied the 20 ％ of whole process only. (typical 28 principles)
Then, berkeley of American California university divided the David Patte of school 1979RsOn teachs the think of a way that offerred RISC, view hardware should be absorption quicken commonly used instruction, relatively complex instruction uses commonly used instruction to combine.
In October 1985, intel was released 80386. Be in 80386 before, ARM1 has the share that is made by condole only.
32, 275 thousandTransistor, frequency is 12.5MHz, 33MHz rises after
Make ARM direct be mixed on function X86 series hard thick line, it is not actual apparently. The design course ——Intel that ARM chose innocently to differ with Intel of purpose marchs toward X86 tall efficiency to design continuously, ARM is dedicated the direction of research and development at low cost, low power comsumption.
Pull far, continue to say that computer that BBC wants.
Said in front, BBC raised requirement 1981, if when ARM1 came out 1985, is that day lily cool?
So, before ARM1 comes out, acorn had offerred a solution to give BBC actually.
At that time, the computer of Acorn, used MOS 6502 processor temporarily (by 8 microprocessor of research and development of MOS science and technology) .
MOS 6502 processor
This computer names Proton at the beginning, later by incognito for BBC Micro.
Arrived 1984, the British school of about 80% deserves to have this computer. Acorn company brushed an existence to feel before British and Caesarean common people thoroughly.
Later, after ARM processor is come out by research and development, use in the follow-up model of BBC Micro.
The ARM chip inside BBC Micro computer
After ARM1, acorn rolled out several series in succession, for example ARM2, ARM3.
Time continues again forth elapse.
On November 27, 1990, acorn company reorganizations formally for ARM computer company. Malic company is contributive 1.5 million pound, chip manufacturer VLSI is contributive 250 thousand pound, acorn itself becomes a shareholder with the intellectual property of 1.5 million pound and 12 engineers.
It is quite concise that LOGO can say
Attention: The ARM here is company name, not be chip name. The complete spelling of this ARM is different also, it is Advanced RISC Machines.
The core title in front says: AcornRISC Machine
Present company name: AdvancedRISC Machines
Nevertheless, the getaway of ARM is more miserable and shabby still. They most initial office spot, it is …… of a barn
Nevertheless, the environment still considers the interior of barn pretty good.
A few years that after hold water, ARM outstanding achievement flatly, engineers also popular feeling in a state of anxiety, fear to be met at any time unemployed.
Below this circumstance, they produce the product strategy —— that ARM decides to change them no longer chip, turn and the means with accredit, chip design program makes over other company, namely “Partnership” opens mode.
Thinking of is this kind of mode, initiated those who belong to ARM is brand-new times.
ARM 32 embedded processor of RISC(Reduced Lnstruction Set Computer) expands worldwide, held low power comsumption, low cost and high-powered embedded the lead position of systematic application domain.
The key comes ~
What ARM place adopts is IP (Intellectual Property, intellectual property) the commercial pattern of accredit, collection is one-time technical accredit charge and royalty deduct a percentage from a sum of money.
Specific for, ARM has kind of 3 kinds of accredit: Processor, POP and framework accredit.
Processor accredit is to show accredit collaboration manufacturer uses ARM to design good processor, the other side is unalterable original design, but the frequency that can adjust a product according to his need, power comsumption.
POP (Processor Optimization Pack, processor optimizes a bag) the advanced form that accredit is processor accredit, ARM sells the processor after optimizing gives accredit cooperative firm, convenient its give function to have manufacturing processor in the design below specific technology, production.
Framework accredit is the framework that manufacturer of collaboration of ARM meeting accredit uses him, convenient its design processor according to its need (for example laterConnect highKrAiT framework and Swift framework of the apple, finish in the design after the authorization that obtains ARM namely) .
So, accredit cost and royalty became the main income source of ARM. Besides, it is the income of software tool and technical support service.
To semiconductor company, how many do accredit cost and royalty have after all? Charge of one-time technology accredit is in 1 million – between 10 million dollar, scale of royalty deduct a percentage from a sum of money is commonly between 1%-2% .
Be the mode of this kind of accredit of ARM, reduced the cost of research and development of oneself and risk of research and development greatly. It is carried in all with the risk, the mode that the interest shares, formed an ecology group that is core with ARM, make low cost innovation becomes a possibility.
After raising pattern of this kind of collaboration when ARM, began to try:
1991, ARM gives semiconductor of British GEC Plessey the company product authorization.
1993, ARM gives product authorizationCirrus LogicAndHeart state apparatus(Texas Instruments, TI) .
With the collaboration of heart state apparatus, brought significant breakthrough to ARM company. And, also established reputation to ARM company, confirmed the feasibility of accredit mode.
After this, more and more companies participate in mode of this kind of accredit in, established cooperative relationship with ARM. Include among themSamSung, the company such as Xia Pu.
On this foundation, ARM is sturdy the determination of accredit mode, begin to design more sex price to compare expensive product.
1993, malic company rolled out ——Newton of product of a new-style palmtop computer. The ARM6 chip that ARM company develops is used at this product in.
Apple Newton Message Pad
Be considered as the originator of PDA and smartphone now
But very regretful, because of Newton technology too lead, add on a few users to experience the blemish that go up, fail to be accepted by the market so, end in order to fail later.
But ARM accumulated experience, continue to reform technology. Did not pass how long, ARM greeted times of his mobile telephone of —— of gold good luck to come.
ARM greeted —— of a big client above all Nuojiya Nokia.
At that time, the GSM that Nuojiya will be rolled out by proposal shortly uses the system of heart state apparatus design on the mobile phone, and this design is based on ARM chip.
Because of the problem of memory space, nuojiya refuses at the beginning to ARM.
For this, ARM develops 16 custom-built instruction market technically, cut the memory space that take up.
such, nuojiya the 6110 GSM mobile telephones that made the first use ARM processor, huge success was scored after appearing on the market.
Nokia 6110, believe to have many people had been used or had seen
ARM rolled out a series of chip such as ARM7 accordingly again later, accredit gives more than 165 companies. Gain ground as the blowout type of mobile mobile phone, full earthen bowl of ARM earn basin is full, extremely.
On April 17, 1998, the ARM holding company that business grows at full speed, hand in place and Nasidake to appear on the market in London card at the same time.
ARM appears on the market in Nasidake
After ARM company appears on the market, the malic company of times of the Qiao Busi after be in, sold the ARM of place hold the share stage by stage, invest capital to the development of Ipod product.
Wear all of compose blame Changshu to ARM chip in view of malic researcher, ipod also continued to use ARM chip.
Well-known, in Qiao Bangzhu guide below, ipod gained huge commercial success.
This has not been over, 2007, real epoch-making product appeared.
That is IPhone.
The occurrence of malic IPhone, overturned thoroughly the design of the mobile telephone, open brand-new times.
generation IPhone, used the chip that ARM design, SamSung makes.
The sell like hot cakes of Iphone, rise abruptly quickly of App Store, let shift application binds the whole world to be surely on ARM instruction collect thoroughly.
Back-to-back, 2008, gu Ge was rolled outAndroid(An Zhuo) system, also be to be based on ARM instruction collect.
So far, the smartphone entered flying development phase, ARM also established the number one position in smartphone market accordingly.
Of the same age, the shipment volume of ARM chip achieved one billion four hundred and ten million and sixty-five thousand four hundred and eight.
Microsoft (2011) announce, windows of below one edition will support ARM processor formally. This is an important matter on history of computer industry development, marking the dominant position of X86 processor happens shake.
Most propbably Intel is to connect intestines Dou Huiqing certainly.
Actually, be Intel one pace served the position that cannot replace nowadays ARM. 90 time, connect high want to cooperate with Intel, intel thinks mobile phone market is too small, rejected to cooperate. Later, generation IPhone of the apple also wants to cooperate with Intel at the beginning, intel still refused with same argument. Result, mobile equipment market is let by Intel submissively person, want to chase after now also chase after did not come back.
In June 2010, malic company expresses to buy ARM company with the price of 8.5 billion dollar of purpose to ARM board of directors, but the rejection that suffers ARM board of directors.
On July 18, 2016, once invested group of Alibaba’s Sun Zhengyi and his Japanese soft silver, with 24.3 billion pound (about 30.9 billion dollar) bought ARM group.
So far, ARM becomes the wholy-owned subsidiary with soft silver-colored subordinate group. Nevertheless, soft silver-colored group shows, the trade that won’t intervene or affects ARM future plans and decision-making.
Here should tell the technology of ARM and range of products
Ahead gray font is high-energy early-warning the 2nd
Blame technology accuses to be jumped over directly please
ARM company basically designs kernel of processor of ARM series AISC, it does not produce chip, offer IP nucleus only. Explain framework, nucleus, processor and chip with an example first: S3C2440, this is chip of a SoC, attention, it is not Cpu, 2440 with 51 we are hepOdd a machineA bit similar, belong to embedded, embedded development arrived to experience 3 level at present, it is SCM respectively, MCU, SoC. 51 belong to SCM or MCU, and 2440 belong to SoC, will read 51 sheet first piece the internal composition of machine
The cent with its interior OK and simple structure becomes two parts: Cpu and peripheral. Will look again of 2440:
That Arm920t among is its processor, processor and nucleus look in me is a concept here, just one is good idea, one is soft concept. The 920t here with respect to since processor it is a nucleus. And what SamSung does is besides the other things outside this Cpu.
Where is that framework? Will see a piece of picture again.
Among them left is a framework, on the right side of is processor, also can call a nucleus. Arm first the most successful Cpu is ARM7TDMI, be based on ARMv4. ARM framework included undermentioned RISC character:
Read take / store framework
Do not assist an address incorrect neat memory is accessed (ARMv6 kernel already was assisted now)
Orthogonal instruction collect (random accesses the means finding site with OK and aleatoric instruction to access data Orthogonal Instruction Set)
16 many×32-bitRegisterArray (Register File)
Fixed 32 Bits command code (Opcode) length, reduce what encode amount place arises to expend, reduce the burden that decipher and automation line change.
All carry out for cycle of a CPU mostly. The framework of different version can be adjusted somewhat.
With SamSung identical other cooperate with Arm each are big the manufacturer is met normally the CPU it and IP of of all kinds periphery are put, next oneself are taking blueprint to flow piece, what production comes out also is a square, there is a lot of to cite a base below, this thing included CPU not only, still included other controller, this thing is called SOC(system On Chip) . From the point of English, so called 4 nucleuses SOC of what, original idea is not sheet points to CPU, however 4 nucleuses system.
The business that at present so each big firm place does, buy the accredit of ARM namely, get the source code of ARM processor, after that oneself do a few periphery IP(perhaps is bought or oneself design) , after comprising a SOC, go flowing piece. Different SOC, the framework is different (it is how CPU is contacted with IP, some is core with bus line, some is core) with DDR, so, The sea is thought ofIt is the SOC framework that has own property right. But, no matter any manufacturers, again how do sth over and over again, how had not moved CPU, ARM core well stay there, that is the processor central.
At present the product day ladder of ARM:
ARM names regulation:
The first number: Series name: Eg.ARM7, ARM9
The 2nd number: Memory System
2: Contain MMU
4: Contain MPU
6: Without MMU and MPU
The 3rd number: Memory Size
0: Standard Cache (4-128k)
2: Reduced Cache
6: Alterable Cache
The 4th character:
T: Express to support Thumb instruction market
D: Express to be debugged on support sheet (Debug)
M: Express inside embed hardware multiplier (Multiplier)
I: The breakpoint on support sheet and attune are pilot
E: State support increases modelDSPFunction
J: Express to support Jazelle technology, namelyJavaAccelerator
S: Express to compound mood completely
Anyhow, ARM can have today’s place, have already external good luck element, also have in-house strategic factor.
They chose a path with Intel polarity. Intel all the time since importunate is heavy asset, the pattern of business of entire industry chain that close, and ARM is small capital fund, open cooperative win-win mode.
To ARM, the partner’s success means his success. Every company that launchs business dealings with ARM all built “ with ARM double the accrete relation that gains ” .
ARM collaboration community includes many 1200 associate
ARM is in the DNA of respect of low power comsumption, just caught up with mobile equipment to erupt the times that type develops, what brought up it finally is brilliant. The high-powered, low cost of ARM company can RISC microprocessor held mobile phone processor at present the market share of 90% , flat computer processor the market share of 80% , get online this processor the market share of 30% .
ARM predominate, be afraid can be expected soon. Pardonable somebody exclamations, intel company will be beaten! Technology of ARM microprocessor nucleus applies extensively at portable communication product, hold operation, multimedia and embedded the domain such as the solution, already made the standard of RISC.
The story of ARM tells us:
1 person is forced urgent, whats work to come out
2 you all the time the weakness of flatter oneself, probable the advantage that is you
The 3 opponent that if you do not work,pass you, think method unites more friends