Core of new generation power source: New trend of semiconductor and commutator

At present the development trend of wisdom mobile phone, is given priority to with larger firebug act size, higher firebug act resolution and faster processor, but the norms of strong put oneself in another’s position that rises ceaselessly, make its power consumption more and more considerable also, with 2K firebug act for, power consumption is 1, the 1.5 times above of 080P firebug act, the energy density that will naturally increase lithium battery and rise charge speed, will lengthen the endurance that the mobile phone uses.

So, mobile phone manufacturer for mobile phone of give attention to two or morethings the market demand of frivolous exterior, batteries capacity is designed with 3, 000 ~4, 000mAh is the mainstream, because this shortens,also charge of time fill technical emerge as the times require quickly. At present on the market main fill plan quickly to have connect high (the Quick Charge of Qualcomm) , couplet sends science and technology (the Pump Express of MediaTek) and OPPO VOOC.

The market is main fill plan quickly

Connect high charge in order to rise voltage will shorten charge time, from the earliest QC 1.0 5V/2A (most high-power 10W) charges compatible 5V/9V/12V/20V of norms and QC 2.0 charges 4 kinds the charging current of voltage and the biggest 3A (most high-power 18W) , the working voltage trends that assists 3.6V~20V to QC 3.0 adjusts (most high-power 22W) , charge than traditional 5V/1A the technology is 4 times faster.

Couplet sends division and the Quick Charge likeness that connect high, with calm electric current is reached rise charge voltage comes true to 5~20V bigger fill electric power, newest Pump Express 3.0 alleges can be inside 20 minutes of Zuo 2, the batteries of 500mAh from 0% fill 70% , charge than traditional 5V/1A the technology is 5 times faster. And OPPO maintains 5V to charge voltage, raise charging current to come true to charge quickly to the means of highest 5A, allege need Zuo 5 minutes only but the capacity 3, the batteries of 000mAh fills the n of 48% .

To shorten mobile phone or be the 3C product such as note computer charge time, no matter be to rise,charge voltage, or it is charging current, each essence that fills a technology quickly depends on enhancing the power of charger, rise by inchoate 5W to 22W, did not come even USB Power Delivery charges agreement, power is supreme can amount to 100W (20V/5A) , shorten considerably charge time, because demand of this high-power charger increases in future,also can anticipate. As power source power rise, batteries certainly will becomes decent to accumulate bigger, weight heavier, because this industry throws a lot of mental efforts continuously,at semiconductor construction is reached enclosed research and improved.

Nitrogen changes gallium semiconductor

In recent years, metallic oxide semiconductor crystal of field effect report (the main power component that MOSFET) has made switch power supply, from crystal of field effect report (FET) , bipolar crystal of the report that accept a scale (BJT) , MOSFET, to insulation brake crystal of extremely ambipolar report (IGBT) , appeared now nitrogen changes gallium (GaN) report crystal, the bulk that can allow switch power supply narrows considerably.

For example, accept small semiconductor (Navitas) rolls out the reference of converter of power source of 65W USB-PD (Type-C) with the smallest size to design NVE028A, used GaN report crystal just about, relatively be based on silicon at be being had on market (of Si) power cell deserve to receive implement dimension [make an appointment with 98-115cc (6-7in3) , weight makes an appointment with 300g] , the 65W that Navitas is based on AllGaN power IC deserves to receive implement bulk only 45cc (2.7 In3) , weight makes an appointment with 60g, quite frivolous confuse you.

Current in light of the switch power source of silicon power cell, raise attune of width of Xiao of arteries and veins to change (although PWM) switch frequency can narrow power source bulk, but companion rises as loss and reduce its to change efficiency, reach electromagnetism to disturb (the addition of EMI) , need to throw more EMI to resolve the way to deal with a situation, because this industry is one eclectic choice with 65kHz.

Although GaN report crystal has switch rate fast, guide a loss density of low, power is advanced and characteristic the advantage that go up, but the person that use changes the MOSFET in circuit GaN FET directly, its effect often is not accorded with anticipate, because Yuan is in design a center at must be with GaN report crystal, choose circuit circuitry framework and control method, ability fills the dominant position of GaN report crystal a play. IC of Navitas AllGaN power, made GaN FET, IC and drive circuit and logistic circuit the conformity of high density, simplify complex circuit design, the application with make an architect OK very easy develops its character.

Carborundum semiconductor

Besides GaN, carborundum (SiC) is current development is more mature wide can unoccupied place (WBG) semiconductor material, important role was acted in new generation power source, compare with traditional silicon semiconductor, applicable is below the severe exacting environment of more high frequency rate, voltage and temperature, still can achieve the character with low efficient consume. As the global attention to environmental protection, electronic product efficiency asks rise, let GaN and SiC make the focal point that course of study studies semiconductor of world each country.

Silicon radical IGBT works commonly at the frequency under 20kHz, be restricted characteristicly by material, the silicon power cell with high frequency high pressure is realized hard, and the working voltage Geng that carborundum MOSFET suits 600~10kV not only is surrounded, have exceedingly good switch character at the same time, can achieve smaller switch loss and taller working frequency, if the SiC MOSFET loss of 20kHz is OK smaller than the Si IGBT of 3kHz in part, the SiC of 50A can replace the Si IGBT of 150A, the retrorse charge Qrr of SiC MOSFET also has 5% what be the same as norms Si MOSFET only, indication carborundum has traditional silicon not to have the exceedingly good character of comparability.

Additional, in carborundum Xiao Teji 2 extremely body (SiC SBD) respect, it has character of good retrorse extensive , when 2 extremely body by suitable slant guide connect change to slant to go against when shutting, the electric current of retrorse extensive of SiC SBD minimum can work at taller frequency, there also can be taller efficiency below same frequency. And SiC SBD is had the character that temperature counts, when component temperature rises, suitable also greaten subsequently to voltage VF, if this character is used at paralell connection when, can avoid component happening to heat up out of control (the state of Thermal Runaway) , also have higher working temperature accordingly, and reliability of component high temperature, because this is extensive element of the power in applying at switch power source is corrective (on PFC) circuit, PFC circuit works at 300kHz above, can narrow inductance component dimension, the work efficiency with identical tenability of use SiC SBD.

Below the case that develops opposite maturity in Si power cell, although GaN and SiC power cell have the advantage on character, but go up in Xuan Cheng, the expenditure that its develop cost asks still taller, also the application because of this GaN and SiC power cell up to now still not true gain ground.

Stick piece model the advantage of bridge-type commutator

Because answer to did not come,small size, high-power deserves to receive implement the development that reachs fast charger domain, develop continuously besides what nitrogen narrates to change gallium and carborundum semiconductor before Yang Lai, with respect to current silicon power cell, the bridge-type commutator of end is inputted in power source, use at charger and power source to deserve to receive implement communication (AC) input carries function of Quan Bo commutate, its enclose a form also gradually by bulk older plug-in unit formula, development is frivolous and smallish stick piece model small size is enclosed.

For example Zhi Wei science and technology (the Z4GP40MH of 4A bridge-type commutator of Zowie) , used SuperChip just about piece model 2 extremely body encloses a technology, the 3.5mm that encloses component ply by type of traditional KBP plug-in unit is reduced to 1.3mm, component measure is narrow also to 8.1 X 10.5mm, bulk only 17.5% what type of KBP plug-in unit encloses, can narrow component dimension saves a space not only, also accord with high limitary special application demand.

From beautiful semiconductor of the following An Sen (apparatus of state of the 42W design of ON Semiconductor) , heart (the Geng exemple photograph of the 45W of TI) and Navitas 65W design, can see power source deserves to receive implement the trend that bulk narrows continuously, and used stick piece model bridge-type commutator (blue casing designation is in) .

Core of new generation power source: New trend of semiconductor and commutator

Graph 1: The 42W of semiconductor, TI 45W and Navitas 65W charger design Ansenmei (by left and right)

Stick piece model uses bridge-type commutator SuperChip piece model 2 extremely body encloses a technology, besides will 2 extremely considerate piece model change, internal composition has fasten the joint making a line at industry (Cheng of Wire Bonding) Xuan , those who use is to solder (Cheng of Solder Bonding) Xuan , if pursue the structural sketch map of 2, 2 extremely body grain solders to leave line of two copper at going up, cupreous line joins component is losing two terminal, 2 extremely the heat that body grain produces, can guide by cupreous line terminal, its come loose heat energy force relatively the structure that make a line is much better, drop the component temperature when application.

Core of new generation power source: New trend of semiconductor and commutator

Graph 2: is used solder the SuperChip structure sketch map of Xuan Cheng

Stick piece model the chip that uses bridge-type commutator also is had decisive, 2 extremely body PN receives a face to reduce converse leakage current with vitreous book jacket, book jacket of entire section glass (GPRC) technology rectification 2 extremely body PN receives complete book jacket, have the character with high temperature inferior leakage current.

Core of new generation power source: New trend of semiconductor and commutator

Graph 3: GPRC and sketch map of industry GPP grain

If pursue,place of curve of character of converse leakage current shows 4 high temperature, GPRC chip at 150 ℃ annulus lukewarm measure so that high temperature leakage current makes an appointment with 50uA, relatively GPP makes an appointment with 100uA at the high temperature leakage current when 125 ℃ low, the product has taller chip to operate Max of ℃ of temperature Tj (Tj=175. ) , and better product reliability.

Core of new generation power source: New trend of semiconductor and commutator

Graph 4: The VR-IR curve of GPRC chip

Epilogue

While pursuit of wisdom mobile phone and note computer is frivolous and beautiful, still must give attention to two or morethings ability of boat of its batteries add, there is new generation in batteries technology before major breakthrough, the trend of the market already deserved to receive toward small size high-power at present implement reach development of fast charger domain, shorten continuously charge time is used to with according with the use of consumer.

Charging quickly respect, manufacturer of each mobile phone fills a group of people of same interest quickly to develop a generation ceaselessly with what its cooperate another generation is faster charge agreement and technology of strong put oneself in another’s position, new fund mobile phone already all matched Yuan factory fills fittings quickly, rose to charge popularity rate quickly considerably, anticipate future charges in USB Power Delivery consultative standards is uniform, plus if nitrogen changes the characteristic and exceedingly good power cell such as gallium and carborundum,appear, and small size is stuck piece model bridge-type commutator develops continuously, be expected to make power source deserves to receive implement reach fill a technology quickly to be gone to further more high-power, faster charge, minorrer volume and lower cost stride.

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